Triticum aestivum (IWGSC)

For information about the assembly and annotation please view the IWGSC announcement.

The previous wheat assembly (TGACv1) and every other plant from release 37 is available in the Ensembl Plants archive site.

About Triticum aestivum

Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is a major global cereal grain essential to human nutrition. Wheat was one of the first cereals to be domesticated, originating in the fertile crescent around 7000 years ago. Bread wheat is hexaploid, with a genome size estimated at ~17 Gb, composed of three closely-related and independently maintained genomes that are the result of a series of naturally occurring hybridisation events. The ancestral progenitor genomes are considered to be Triticum urartu (the A-genome donor) and an unknown grass thought to be related to Aegilops speltoides (the B-genome donor). This first hybridisation event produced tetraploid emmer wheat (AABB, T. dicoccoides) which hybridized again with Aegilops tauschii (the D-genome donor) to produce modern bread wheat.

Guidelines for gene nomenclature in wheat can be found in the 2013 edition of the Wheat Gene Catalogue available in GrainGenes. The Wheat Gene Catalogue is the internationally agreed rules of nomenclature for wheat genes.

Taxonomy ID 4565

Data source International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium

More information and statistics

Genome assembly: IWGSC

More information and statistics

Download DNA sequence (FASTA)

Convert your data to IWGSC coordinates

Display your data in Ensembl Plants

Other cultivars

This species has data on 17 additional cultivars. View list of cultivars

Gene annotation

What can I find? Protein-coding and non-coding genes, splice variants, cDNA and protein sequences, non-coding RNAs.

More about this genebuild

Download genes, cDNAs, ncRNA, proteins - FASTA - GFF3

Update your old Ensembl IDs

Comparative genomics

What can I find? Homologues, gene trees, and whole genome alignments across multiple species.

More about comparative analyses

Phylogenetic overview of gene families

Download alignments (EMF)


What can I find? Short sequence variants.

More about variation in Ensembl Plants

Download all variants - GVF - VCF - VEP

Variant Effect Predictor


What can I find? Microarray annotations.

More about the Ensembl Plants microarray annotation strategy