Glycine max Assembly and Gene Annotation

About Glycine max

Glycine max (soybean) is a crop legume that globally constitutes one of the most important sources of animal feed protein and cooking oil. Having originated in East Asia soy is now cultivated world-wide with greatest production in the U.S. Though only a minor proportion of the crop is eaten directly by humans, soybean is a valuable source of protein, containing all essential amino acids, and frequently used as a dietary substitute for meat. Like other legumes, soybean is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen by engaging in a symbiotic relationship with microbial organisms. The complete sequence of the soybean genome not only impacts research and breeding of this crop, but also serves as a reference for genomics research in other legumes. Representing the order Fabales within the eudicot taxonomy, the sequence will also advance research in comparative phylogenomics. As a paleopolyploid, the soybean genome shows evidence of two ancient whole genome duplications, one early in the legume lineage and a second more recent event specific to the soybean lineage. The soybean genome has 20 chromosomes and an estimated size of 1,115 Mb.


Glycine max var. Williams 82 was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the U.S. DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI-PGF) in collaboration with a consortium of research labs and published. Current assembly is version v2.1 and comprises a total 978 Mb (GCA_000004515.4).


The Wm82.a2.v1 gene set integrates ~1.6 million ESTs, some 454 ESTs and 1.5 billion paired-end Illumina RNA-seq reads with homology-based gene predictions. A total of 56,044 protein-coding loci (see JGI Phytozome for additional details).



  1. Genome sequence of the palaeopolyploid soybean.
    Schmutz J, Cannon SB, Schlueter J, Ma J, Mitros T, Nelson W, Hyten DL, Song Q, Thelen JJ, Cheng J et al. 2010. Nature. 463:178-183.
  2. Image credit: USDA.

Picture credit: Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository

More information

General information about this species can be found in Wikipedia.



AssemblyGlycine_max_v2.1, INSDC Assembly GCA_000004515.4, Jul 2018
Database version99.4
Base Pairs955,377,461
Golden Path Length978,491,270
Genebuild byJGI
Genebuild methodImport
Data sourceJoint Genome Institute

Gene counts

Coding genes55,897
Gene transcripts88,412

About this species