About Triticum aestivum
Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is a major global cereal grain essential to human nutrition. Wheat was one of the first cereals to be domesticated, originating in the fertile crescent around 7000 years ago. Bread wheat is hexaploid, with a genome size estimated at ~17 Gbp, composed of three closely-related and independently maintained genomes that are the result of a series of naturally occuring hybridization events. The ancestral progenitor genomes are considered to be Triticum urartu (the A-genome donor) and an unknown grass thought to be related to Aegilops speltoides (the B-genome donor). This first hybridization event produced tetraploid emmer wheat (AABB, T. dicoccoides) which hybridized again with Aegilops tauschii (the D-genome donor) to produce modern bread wheat.
What can I find? Homologues, gene trees, and whole genome alignments across multiple species.
Download alignments (EMF)
Wheat sequence search
In addition to the normal sequence search facilities, provided against any reference genome, a dedicated wheat sequence search service allows you to find alignments between your favourite genes and all the publicly available bread wheat genome sequences. The matched wheat sequences can be visualized in the context of reference models from the Hordeum vulgare and Brachypodium distachyon genomes.
Search is performed via the ENA search service, and currently includes:
- The 5x 454 whole genome assembly,
- ~1.3 million wheat EST sequences, and
- ~57,000 wheat Unigene cluster sequences.
This sequence search service, specific to bread wheat, will be disabled in the next release of Ensembl Plants (Fall 2014).
- International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC)
- URGI Wheat Portal
- MIPS International Wheat Survey Genome Database
- MIPS 5x 454 Survey Wheat Genome Database
- Triticeae Genomics For Sustainable Agriculture resource page
- Triticeae-CAP in UC Davis University
- Triticum monococcum resources from Jaiswal Lab in Oregon State University
- TREP, the Triticeae Repeat Sequence Database
- TriFLDB, the triticeae full-length CDS database
- ENA study ERP000319: 454 pyrosequencing of the Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) genome to 5X coverage
- ENA study ERP001415: 454 sequencing of Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) cv. Chinese spring cDNA samples from a pool of tissues, from plants under drought stress and from circadian-sampled leaves
- Triticum aestivum ESTs at ENA
- Triticum aestivum Unigene cluster sequences at NCBI